Graph of the Week
Each week we are posting a new graph to demonstrate the breadth of democracy indicators available, the graphs are created using the Online Analysis Tools. This way we would like to encourage users around the world to use our Online Analysis Tools to interact and engage with the largest database of democracy measures.
Summer vacation is approaching for many of us here at the V-Dem Institute. But even though we might take a break, democracy doesn’t! This week’s graph will highlight a few upcoming elections during the summer months and the state of liberal democracy in these countries.
Turkey’s parliamentary and presidential elections will be held on June 24.
The United States of America has been seeing a series of strikes by teachers. It began with the West Virginia teachers’ strike in February this year and spread to other states such as Arizona, Oklahoma and Colorado.
Venezuelans went to the polls on May 20.
Malaysia’s Prime Minister Najib Razak dissolved parliament on April 7 and general elections will be held on May 9. This election comes at a rocky time marred by the 1MDB scandal where $4.5 billion was reported missing from the state development fund. Of this, $700 million was connected to Prime Minister Najib. While he has denied any form of malpractice, many are still stumped that he has been able to remain as Prime Minister despite being implicated in the scandal.
South Korea’s ex-president Park Geun-Hye was sentenced to 24 years in jail on 6 April 2018 after being impeached in March last year.
On April 9, Hungary’s right-wing Prime Minister Viktor Orbán claimed his third consecutive victory in the general election with his party Fidesz, winning a two-third majority in parliament. Mr Orbán, a Eurosceptic campaigned on an anti-immigration platform. While it was a landslide victory for him and his party, election monitors have acknowledged that the vote came amid bias media reporting and xenophobia.
The Paraguayan general elections are scheduled for 22 April. Leo Rubin, vice presidential candidate for the opposition alliance GANAR, handed a letter to the OAS General Secretary. In the letter, Mr. Rubin requested urgent intervention by the OAS to ensure the preservation of national institutions 'weakened by political figures thirsty for power'.
On March 18, the Syrian president Bashar al-Assad could be seen driving to the rebel-held suburbs of Ghouta, where Syrian government’s military offensive last month led to 1,500 casualties.
On March 9 Bratislava was the stage to the biggest demonstration in Slovakia since the fall of the communist regime. Around 40,000 people joined anti-government protests in the capital on Friday, in outrage and disbelief over the murdering of a journalist investigating corruption. His death prompted the resignation of Prime Minister Fico and other officials.
On March 16, 1751, James Madison, the father of the US Constitution and foremost advocate for openness of government was born. Madison was an active voice at his time for ensuring that the government of the newly-formed nation would hold no secrets from its people. Honoring this very concept today is celebrated the Freedom of Information Day!
On February 13, the Israeli police recommended Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to be indicted on charges of bribery, fraud and breach of trust.
After days of resisting orders from the African National Congress (ANC), South Africa’s ruling party, Jacob Zuma resigned from office on February 14. Zuma’s resignation came one day before the calling for a vote of no-confidence in the National Assembly. It indicates that his involvement in corruption scandals have finally exhausted the ANC’s support for the former president.
On 14 February, Justin Trudeau announced a series of upcoming formal meetings with Canada´s Indigenous People to discuss legislation reforms to better secure their rights.
On 24 January, a Brazilian appeals court upheld the former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s conviction for corruption.
With elections in Egypt set to take place in March, the current president Abdel Fatah al-Sisi faces virtually no opposition to his reelection campaign. While his victory seems certain, the president’s popularity nevertheless has dropped since he was elected in 2014. Egyptian civil society has been strongly curtailed and the country was branded as “one of the world’s biggest prisons for journalists” by Reporters Without Borders.
On January 21, around 90,000 people flocked around the White Tower in Thessaloniki, Greece’s second largest city, to protest against a 25-year dispute: the addition of “Macedonia” to the name of the Former Yugoslav neighboring country. Attendance was just a fraction of that in 1992, when around a million people gathered in Thessaloniki to protest the name change.
On December 6, 2017, US President Trump formally recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Since the country had annexed the eastern part of the city in 1980, the question of control over its holy sites has been a crucial issue in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Hence, Arab countries and even Western allies protested against this decision that could trigger a new wave of violence in the Middle East.
On January 22, the former football star George Weah is inaugurated as Liberia’s new president.
On December 28, a series of protests started throughout Iran as a reaction against the rising costs of living, but quickly changed to broader anti-government protests.
The new year is still fresh, but both democracy and the V-Dem Institute are already busy again!
It’s been almost four years since the ‘Euromaidan’ protests ousted the unpopular Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych.
Christmas is approaching fast, so let’s focus not only on peace underneath the Christmas tree, but also around the globe!
During the past months, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has intensified his threats to attack US territory. Contrary to his stylization as a strongman, some analysts believe that this might be a sign of Kim’s weak domestic position. However, information is scarce due to the country’s repressive environment. Nevertheless, thanks to a set of renowned Country Experts V-Dem can provide data on North Korea, too.
When the military seized power in Zimbabwe on November 15, it carefully avoided to name it a “coup”. Instead, the army put forward a different story: They were only targeting “criminals” who were “causing social and economic suffering”.
On 4 November, Lebanon’s Prime Minister Saad Hariri unexpectedly resigned from office, blaming Iran and the Shia militant group Hezbollah for destabilizing the country and seeking his life. However, observers believe that Hariri might have been abducted by Saudi Arabia and forced to say so. Is Lebanon becoming a playground for Saudi Arabia’s and Iran’s striving for regional predominance?
This fall, the “#metoo” campaign has been in the media across the globe.
This is the hundredth graph of the week!
Today, November 13, Presidential elections are planned in Somaliland.
Fake news! In 2016, the concept of fake news gained salience in connection with the U.S. presidential election.
The ongoing protests in Venezuela reached a tipping point in January 2017 with the arrest of political opposition leaders, and were followed by the dissolution of the National Assembly.
On September 26, King Salman of Saudi Arabia declared that women are now allowed to drive, effectively ending a 60-year-old ban frequently targeted by women’s rights organizations.
Recently, the situation of the Rohingya people in Myanmar has grabbed the world’s attention.
The government of Catalonia held a referendum on independence from Spain on 1 October, 2017.
The German federal election, held on Sunday September 24, has given Angela Merkel a new mandate.
September 15 is International Democracy Day and of course V-Dem’s favorite day of the year.
With the V-Dem Dataset version 7.1, V-Dem released the new Accountability Index and its three subcomponents: Vertical Accountability Index, Horizontal Accountability Index and Diagonal Accountability Index. This week’s graph will look at the Accountability Index across different European regions since 1930.
Graph of the week is back!
Summer vacations are approaching for many of us here at the V-Dem Institute, so this will be the last Graph for a few weeks.
On June 12, Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny called on Russians to take the streets to express their discontent with current corruption levels.
In last week’s graph we took a look at the upcoming parliamentary elections in Albania.
Parliamentary elections were planned in Albania for June 18.
United Kingdom had its last parliamentary elections in 2015.
In Taiwan, top court ruled on May 24 that current laws preventing persons of the same sex from marrying violate their right to equality and are therefore also unconstitutional.
Last week a lot happened at V-Dem. The annual Policy Dialogue Day 2017 “From Knowledge to Action: Current Insights on Democracy, Governance and Armed Conflict” took place in Gothenburg. But most importantly, what we all have been working on finally happened. V-Dem launched the updated Dataset v7 “Largest Database on Democracy in History” and the first V-Dem Annual Report!
On April 23rd, French voters failed to give a majority to any of the candidates in the presidential election, setting up a second round runoff between Emmanuel Macron (En Marche) and Marine Le Pen (Front National) on May 7th.
The Hungarian National Assembly, Országgyűlés, is set to vote a law that will require any foreign funded academic institution to open campuses in the countries where funding comes from.
On the 2nd of April, Aleksandar Vucic was elected Serbia’s next president and will take office in May.
One of the main issues of concern regarding the fairness of electoral campaigns is where the campaign donations come from.
World Health Day is celebrated on April 7th to mark the anniversary of the founding of the World Health Organization (WHO).
Turkey will hold a referendum on April 16 on eighteen proposed amendments to the Constitution.
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16.6 calls for effective, accountable and transparent institutions.
During the month of March, Netherlands, Ireland and Bulgaria are holding parliamentary elections. In the spirit of last week’s Women’s International Day this week’s graph examine parliamentary representation by women in these three countries since 1940.
The International Women’s Day takes place on March 8. In honor of this occasion we take a look at the new V-Dem Women’s Political Empowerment Index (find out more here) in different regions of the world.
In January, the Romanian government adopted a new bill that decriminalizes official misconduct for politicians and civil servants if a financial damage is less than 200000 LEI (45000 EUR).
The UN’s World Day of Social Justice takes place on February 20, 2017.
On February 19, general elections will be held in Ecuador.
The Gambian presidential elections, held this past December (https://www.v-dem.net/en/news/presidential-elections-gambia/), brought a surprising result when 23-year President Yahya Jammeh lost to challenger Adam Barrow.
On January 26th, the world’s largest democracy (in terms of population) celebrates Republic Day, which honors the 1950 Constitution marking India’s transition to an independent and democratically governed republic. On this occasion, this week’s graph takes a look at the development of democracy in India.
Myanmar’s recent military operations in response to an attack on a police station by an émigré-led Rohingya insurgent group have become the target of international criticism.
In December, South Korean President Park Geun-Hye was impeached by the Parliament over a corruption scandal involving her informal advisor, Choi Soon-sil.
Over the New Year’s holiday, violent and deadly protests occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) after President Joseph Kabila’s refusal to step down with the expiration of his second consecutive term in office on December 20th 2016.
The United Nations (UN) International Migrants Day is annually held on December 18 to recognize the efforts, contributions, and rights of migrants worldwide.
With the holiday season upon us in many parts of the world, the graph of the week examines freedom of religion in four different regions in the world since 1900.
On December 1st, presidential elections in The Gambia brought unexpected political change. Opposition candidate Adama Barrow defeated Yahya Jammeh, who had been president for 22 years.
In June, the United Kingdom held a referendum on whether to remain in the European Union (“Brexit”) and 52% of the votes were cast in favor of leaving EU. Last week, however, it was decided that the Brexit decision would need the backing of parliament.
On November 8th the Republican candidate Donald Trump was elected president of the United States.
There are many places in the world where elections get delayed. This week’s graph examines two countries where elections planned for this year have been postponed: Haiti and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The United States’ presidential election currently dominates the media in many parts of the world.
November 2nd is the “International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists.” Over the past decade over 800 journalists have been killed for reporting news and information, but only 7 percent of the cases have been resolved and only one in ten cases have been properly investigated. Because of impunity, governments get away with censorship by instilling fear in journalists. This week’s graph takes a closer look at V-Dem’s harassment of journalists’ variable by using the V-Dem online analysis graphing tool.
The 2016 Nobel peace prize was awarded to the Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end".
This week’s graph highlights the drill-down feature in the V-Dem Online Analysis tool. It allows us to take a closer look at the component variables that make up any higher order index in the dataset that interests you. In other words you can drill down into the constituent data for each V-Dem index.
The Olympic and Paralympic games this summer has shined a spotlight on Brazil. Political turmoil, including the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff and protests about Olympic spending and the displacement of Rio’s poor have figured prominently in the news. This week’s graph takes a look at the development of radical protests and corruption levels in Brazil. We wanted to see if these two political developments have any relationship to each other.
There are several elections taking place this month. This week’s graph takes a closer look at the development of democracy in some of the countries where elections will occur.
Female representation in national legislative bodies has increased steadily on a global level, yet we are still far away from equal representation. Currently there are only two countries in the world with 50 percent or more women in parliament in the single or lower house, namely Rwanda and Bolivia.
It is not only in Russia that parliamentary elections have taken place this week; on 20 September 2016 general elections were held in Jordan. The 18th Lower House of Parliament, the House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwab), was elected.
Russia held a parliamentary election on 18th of September 2016. Four major parties were contending for seats in parliament, the State Duma. Voters’ access to information is crucial for a well-functioning democratic process: what is the situation for voters’ access to information in Russia?
September 15 is the International Democracy Day and V-Dem’s favorite day of the year. This year’s theme is the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This agenda takes an egalitarian approach and aims to fight inequalities and reduce poverty, as well as tackling climate change.
Across the Northern Hemisphere, September means the beginning of another school year. However, expectations or opportunities for education are not the same everywhere. Educational equality varies widely across the globe.
Over the summer, pride parades took place across the globe, celebrating the advancement of rights for members of the LGBT community. The past few years saw great advancements for the LGBT community, from marriage equality in the US to full adoption rights in some European countries such as Austria, Ireland, and Portugal.
Joining the European Union does not happen overnight; rather, it is a long and complicated process.
In the race to the US election, the main candidates differ greatly on numerous issues, healthcare being one of them.
Today is International Women’s Day - a day to acknowledge women’s rights and turn our attention to the injustices and challenges facing women worldwide based on their gender.
In October last year, the EU introduced its Gender Action Plan for 2016-2020. It aims to transform the lives of girls and women throughout the EU, striving for gender equality and the promotion, protection and fulfilment of women and girls’ human rights.
The V-Dem Alternative Sources of Information Index measures to what extent the media in a country is (a) un-biased in their coverage (or lack of coverage) of the opposition, (b) allowed to be critical of the regime, and (c) representative of a wide array of political perspectives. In this week’s graph we examine this aspect of democracy in five of sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Benin and Tanzania.
Former president of the Seychelles James Mancham has been awarded the Africa Peace Award 2016 for his work to, among many accomplishments, promote peace, interfaith harmony and good governance both in the Seychelles and in Africa as a whole. In this graph of the week we take a closer look at the level of liberal democracy and freedom of expression in the Seychelles.
Many people believe that one of the best ways to fight corruption is to promote democracy: if public officials know they are accountable to voters, they will be more honest. Is this true?
Last Wednesday was International Anti-Corruption Day. Corruption remains a large challenge for many countries, not the least for Brazil which is experiencing a major corruption scandal. This week’s graph explores corruption among different actors in Brazil.
In this week’s graph, the development in India over time in terms of egalitarian democracy is explored. Four of the indicators making up the Egalitarian Component Index are included in the figure.
The Myanmar elections on the 8th of November resulted in a landslide victory for Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD).
The V-Dem Institute, among other civil society and academic organizations, has been participating in the discussions of a Virtual Network expert group organized by UNDP on how to measure Sustainable Development Goal 16.
On the theme of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals and especially goal 16, which promotes peace, justice and strong institutions, this week’s graph relates to yet another sub-goal. Target 16.7 aims to ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.
In May this year the V-Dem Regional Center for Eastern Europe and Russia was founded at the University of Tartu in Estonia. It is the first regional research center within the worldwide V-Dem network and this Friday a seminar on “Varieties of Democracy: The Baltic States in a Regional and Global Perspective” will be held at the center.
Multiparty elections have become a near ubiquitous institutional feature of states around the world.
Last week we published a graph on the topic of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals and in particular goal 16, which promotes peace, justice and strong institutions. One of the 10 sub-goals (16.3) is to promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.
Last Friday world leaders agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals that are expected to shape the development policy agenda in the world for the next 15 years as the UN general assembly formally adopted the new development goals. Goal 16 promotes peace, justice and strong institutions for sustainable development and consists of 10 sub-goals, one of which is ensuring public access to information and protection of fundamental freedoms (sub-goal 16.10).
One of the seven V-Dem dimensions of democracy is the participatory. The participatory component of democracy emphasizes active participation by citizens in all political processes, electoral and non-electoral. It takes suffrage for granted, emphasizing engagement in civil society organizations, direct democracy, and subnational elected bodies.
For Global Legislative Openness Week, V-Dem’s Graph of the Week depicts the degree of legislative constraints on the executive among the regions of the Americas, 1900-2012.
Electoral democracy is the core component in V-Dem’s conceptualization of democracy. The idea of electoral democracy encompasses the core value of making political leaders responsive to the electorate for the support of broad constituencies through competitive, periodic elections. Using V-Dem’s online analysis tools, variables such as the electoral democracy index can be compared across different countries and regions.
Distinguishing between various dimensions of democracy, the V-Dem data offer five democracy component indices: electoral, liberal, participatory, egalitarian and deliberative. These components are composed of a number of indicators and indices. In the graph, the indices constituting the liberal democracy component for Mexico - legislative constraints on the executive, judicial constraints on the executive and equality before the law and individual liberty - are displayed.
The V-Dem Institute provides a number of indices measuring different dimensions of democracy and governance. One of them is the female empowerment index, which reflects the ability, right and freedom of women to hold political power and participate in the society. It is comprised of a number of distinct indicators. The advantage of being able to distinguish between different aspects of female empowerment is evident from the graph below where Japan is the country of analysis.
The idea that material and immaterial inequalities inhibit the actual exercise of formal rights and liberties figures prominently in democratic theory. Hence, a more equal distribution of resources across citizens should enhance political equality. In the figure bellow, indicators used to measure the egalitarian component of democracy are displayed for a new country available for analysis on the V-Dem website: Timor-Leste.
Moves towards and away from democracy constitute a crucial part of the political legacies of a country. The current situation in Argentina, with the death (and allegations surrounding it) of a high level prosecutor earlier this year and the subsequent suggestion of President Kirchner to dissolve the Secretariat of State Intelligence, have made some commentators to draw lines back to the so-called “Dirty War” of the 1970s and 1980s, when the intelligence agency carried out violent human rights repression on a large scale.
Since the latest update, V-Dem has not only made available regional averages but also added more countries. Among those are four new countries from Oceania – Fiji, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. The “electoral principle of democracy index” seeks to embody the core value of making rulers responsive to citizens, achieved through electoral competition for the electorate’s approval under circumstances when suffrage is extensive; political and civil society organizations can operate freely; elections are clean and not marred by fraud or systematic irregularities; and elections affect the composition of the chief executive of the country.
V-Dem now proudly presents more than 400 indicators measuring different aspects of democracy. These indicators are averaged into lower-level indices and democracy components. The components then make up our high-level indices, measuring five principles of democracy: the electoral, the liberal, the deliberative, the participatory and the egalitarian.
Presidential elections in Kazakhstan originally scheduled for 2016 were held on 26 April 2015; parlamentary elections will be still held in 2016. V-Dem indicators allow us to gauge to what extent parties, including opposition parties, are allowed to form and to participate in elections, and to what extent are civil society organizations able to form and to operate freely in Kazakhstan.
An important aspect of equality is how political power is spread among different groups in the society. V-Dem offers a variety of indicators measuring the distribution of political power. The graph below shows to what extent different groups in society have been politically disadvantaged due to socioeconomic position, social identity, gender, or sexual orientation in Costa Rica. This country has one of the longest continuing traditions of electoral democracy in Latin America and data for this country on these issues has recently been updated.
Political empowerment is understood to include freedom of speech, participation in civil society organizations, freedom of movement, the right to private property, access to justice, freedom from forced labor, representation in the ranks of journalists, and an equal share in the overall distribution of power.
Last week, V-Dem released data for 31 new countries and updated data for 29 countries for 2013-2014, all available for online analysis on our webpage! A new exciting feature now available with this release on the V-Dem online analysis tools allows for comparisons between countries and the regional average scores on all V-Dem indicators.
Democratization has been problematic in many respects in Southeast Asia, with a track record of violations of central democratic principles such as press freedom and political dissent. While Indonesia has taken huge strides in democratization since 1998, countries like Laos and Cambodia have experienced a slower democratization process.
What makes V-Dem different from other initiatives aiming to measure democracy is that we take the many different dimensions of democracy into account by distinguishing among five high-level principles (i.e., electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian).
The state of democracy in countries are determined by various actors and institutions. Among other things V-Dem offers disaggregated data on the legislature, the excecutive, the judiciary, political parties, the civil society and the media.
Today is the International Women’s Day which is celebrated around the globe.
A couple of weeks ago it was announced that Nigeria will postpone its elections scheduled for February 14th until March 28th.
This week V-Dem is attending the final high-level meeting on “Dialogue on the Implementation of the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Strengthening Capacities and Building Effective Institutions”, in Moldova.
Corruption has over the years been increasingly acknowledged by both scholars and practitioners to be a crucial factor in the development of countries and well-functioning democracies.
Civil society is, according to many, a crucial actor for democratic governance.
The V-Dem dataset contains ten different indicators measuring different aspects of media freedom.
A number of countries will be holding elections this year, one of them being Burma/Myanmar. The country has over the past years moved towards reforming the political system, where the military government reintroduced national elections in 2010, and in that connection loosened the repression of civil liberties.
As the only global data set on democracy, V-Dem provides indicators capturing the extent to which public deliberation is part of the process of national political decision-making.
South American countries have traditionally been characterized by few female cabinet members.
The ability of countries to successfully conduct secure and non-violent elections is important for the political participation of ordinary citizens and an essential indicator of democratic consolidation. In many African countries, electoral violence remains a crucial challenge. One tragic example is the Kenyan crises of 2007, where thousands of people lost their lives or were displaced following presidential elections.
V-Dem registers improvements in democracy in Tunisia, the one case of democratization emerging from the Arab Spring.
Both democracy and development entail breaking down the barriers to gender equality. In many new democracies, female empowerment is growing.
December 18th marks the 4th anniversary of the beginning of the Arab Spring, during which civil society in large parts of the Arab world was mobilized.
Malala Yousafzai was recently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the youngest recipient to garner the prize. She has been an activist promoting children's education in Pakistan, especially for girls.
The V-Dem online analysis tool allows exploring and comparing trends in the development of a few countries over time.