About V-Dem

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. We provide a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond the simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. 

It is a collaboration among more than 50 scholars worldwide which is co-hosted by the Department of Political Science at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; and the Kellogg Institute at the University of Notre Dame, USA. With four Principal Investigators (PIs), fifteen Project Managers (PMs) with special responsibility for issue areas, more than thirty Regional Managers (RMs), 170 Country Coordinators (CCs), Research Assistants, and 2,800 Country Experts (CEs), the V-Dem project is one of the largest social science data collection projects focusing on research.

Brief information about V-Dem can be found here: Varieties of Democracy Brief.


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V-Dem Database

V-Dem is one of the largest-ever social science data collection efforts with a database containing over 18 million data points. Since April 2017, the dataset covers 177 countries from 1900 to 2016 with annual updates to follow. V-Dem is the recipient of the Lijphart/Przeworski/Verba Dataset Award 2016.


V-Dem draws on theoretical and methodological expertise from its worldwide team to produce data in the most objective and reliable way possible. Approximately half of the indicators in the V-Dem dataset are based on factual information obtainable from offcial documents such as constitutions and government records. The other half consists of more subjective assessments on topics like political practices and compliance with de jure rules. On such issues, typically five experts provide ratings.

V-Dem works closely with leading social science research methodologists and has developed a state of the art measurement model that, to the extent possible, minimizes coder error and addresses issues of comparability across countries and over time. V-Dem also draws on the team’s academic expertise to develop theoretically informed techniques for aggregating indicators into mid- and high-level indices. In this sense, V-Dem is at the cutting edge of developing new and improved methods of social science measurement.

What makes V-Dem different

In order to better conceptualize and measure democracy, the V-Dem project:

  • Distinguishes among 7 high-level Principles of Democracy: 

Electoral, Liberal, Participatory, Majoritarian, Consensual, Deliberative, and Egalitarian

  • Disaggregates into dozens of lower-level Components of Democracy such as regular elections, judicial independence, direct democracy, and gender equality, and provides disaggregated indicators for each conception and each component.
  • Covers all countries (and some dependent territories) from 1900 to the present, whenever possible, and provides an estimate of measurement reliability for each rating.
  • Makes all ratings public, free of charge, in a user-friendly interface.

These features, taken together, distinguish our project from extant democracy indices.

Benefits of V-Dem

Through a systematic, historical, and disaggregated approach V-Dem:

  • Provides a full set of indices for each conception and component.
  • Allows scholars and practitioners to construct their own indices to suit their own purposes, exploring relationships among very specific elements of democracy over long periods of time.
  • Advances our understanding of the historical process of democratization, shedding light on the sequences by which regimes have developed over the past century, and perhaps providing a glimpse into future.
  • Advances our understanding of the causes and effects of democracy, the extent to which regime type matters in the world today.
  • Allows for more nuanced understanding than present indicators currently allow.
  • Assists governments, development agencies, and NGOs with country assessments, design of effective programs, and evaluation of the impact of development assistance in the democracy and governance (D&G) area.


V-Dem has been or is currently funded by (not in order of magnitude): Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, the European Union/ the European Commission/EuroAID, the European Research Council, Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Sweden, the Swedish Research Council, Marianne & Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, International IDEA, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs-Denmark, the Danish Research Council, the Canadian International Development Agency, NORAD/the Norwegian Research Council, Aarhus University, Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos, Mo Ibrahim Foundation, and the Quality of Government Institute, with co-funding from University of Gothenburg and University of Notre Dame.

For more information about funding please click here.